Monday, 19 August 2019

The Catechism of the Summa - The Second Part: VIII. OF THE VIRTUES WHICH CAN AND OUGHT TO BE THE PRINCIPLE OF MAN'S GOOD ACTS

(A)

What is meant by the acquiring of virtue?

By this is meant the acquiring or the bringing to perfection of all the "good habits which make man act well" (XLIX.-LXVIII.).

What are the good habits which make man act well?

They are dispositions or inclinations which are seated in divers faculties, and which render good the acts of these faculties (LV. 1.4).

Whence in man's divers faculties come these dispositions or inclinations which are conducive to their acting well?

At times they come, in part, from nature herself; sometimes they come from the person who acts for virtue's sake; and sometimes they come directly from God, who produces them in the soul supernaturally (LXIII. 1-4).

Are there any such dispositions or good habits or in man's intellect?

Yes, there are suchlike dispositions or good habits or virtues in man's intellect (LVI. 3).

What is the effect of these virtues in man's intellect?(B)

How many kinds are there of these movements of the heart? There are eleven (XXII. 4). 



What are they called?



Their names are: "love," "desire," "delight" or "joy"; "hate," "abhorence," "sadness," "hope," "courage," "fear," "despair," and "anger" (XXII. 4).



Do these movements of the heart occupy an important part in man's life?



Yes, these movements of the heart occupy a very important part in man's life.

Why is it that they occupy a very important part in man's life?



Because in man there is a twofold nature: rational and sensitive; the sensitive nature is the one that is moved first by the action of the external world in the midst of which we live and from which we derive even all the data of our rational life.



Are not then the movements of the heart or the passions always, of themselves, bad?



No, the movements of the heart or the passions are not of themselves always bad.



When are these movements of the heart or the passions bad?



When they are not in accord with the rulings of right reason.



And when are they not in accord with the rulings of right reason?



When they bear towards a sensible good or withdraw from a sensible evil by forestalling the judgment of the reason or by coming into play contrary to this judgment. (XXV. or XXIV. 3).



Next - The Catechism of the Summa - The Second Part: VII. OF THE AFFECTIVE MOVEMENTS IN MAN WHICH ARE CALLED THE PASSIONS (C)
(B)

How many kinds are there of these movements of the heart? There are eleven (XXII. 4).



What are they called?



Their names are: "love," "desire," "delight" or "joy"; "hate," "abhorence," "sadness," "hope," "courage," "fear," "despair," and "anger" (XXII. 4).



Do these movements of the heart occupy an important part in man's life?



Yes, these movements of the heart occupy a very important part in man's life.

Why is it that they occupy a very important part in man's life?



Because in man there is a twofold nature: rational and sensitive; the sensitive nature is the one that is moved first by the action of the external world in the midst of which we live and from which we derive even all the data of our rational life.



Are not then the movements of the heart or the passions always, of themselves, bad?



No, the movements of the heart or the passions are not of themselves always bad.



When are these movements of the heart or the passions bad?



When they are not in accord with the rulings of right reason.



And when are they not in accord with the rulings of right reason?



When they bear towards a sensible good or withdraw from a sensible evil by forestalling the judgment of the reason or by coming into play contrary to this judgment. (XXV. or XXIV. 3).



Next - The Catechism of the Summa - The Second Part: VII. OF THE AFFECTIVE MOVEMENTS IN MAN WHICH ARE CALLED THE PASSIONS (C)


They make man's intellect to seek the truth only (LVI. 3)
(B)

How many kinds are there of these movements of the heart? There are eleven (XXII. 4).



What are they called?



Their names are: "love," "desire," "delight" or "joy"; "hate," "abhorence," "sadness," "hope," "courage," "fear," "despair," and "anger" (XXII. 4).



Do these movements of the heart occupy an important part in man's life?



Yes, these movements of the heart occupy a very important part in man's life.

Why is it that they occupy a very important part in man's life?



Because in man there is a twofold nature: rational and sensitive; the sensitive nature is the one that is moved first by the action of the external world in the midst of which we live and from which we derive even all the data of our rational life.



Are not then the movements of the heart or the passions always, of themselves, bad?



No, the movements of the heart or the passions are not of themselves always bad.



When are these movements of the heart or the passions bad?



When they are not in accord with the rulings of right reason.



And when are they not in accord with the rulings of right reason?



When they bear towards a sensible good or withdraw from a sensible evil by forestalling the judgment of the reason or by coming into play contrary to this judgment. (XXV. or XXIV. 3).



Next - The Catechism of the Summa - The Second Part: VII. OF THE AFFECTIVE MOVEMENTS IN MAN WHICH ARE CALLED THE PASSIONS (C)


What are these virtues in man s intellect called?

They are called "intuition" or "insight," "science," "wisdom," "art," and "prudence" (LVII. 1-6).

What is the object of each of these virtues in man's intellect or reason?

Intuition or insight gives a knowledge of principles (self-evident truths); science a knowledge of conclusions; wisdom a knowledge of the highest causes; art gives directions for the execution of external works; and prudence directions for the whole of the moral life (LVII. 1-6). 

What are the virtues of justice, fortitude, temperance, and prudence called?

They are called the moral virtues (LVI-II. 1).

Are they not also called by the name of the "cardinal" virtues?

Yes, they are also called the cardinal virtues (LXI. 1-4).

What is meant by the words cardinal virtues?

By these words is implied that they are virtues of particular importance, which are as it were the hinges (in Latin cardo, cardinis) upon which, setting aside the theological virtues, turn all the other virtues (ibid.).

In man must the virtues of the natural order, or the acquired virtues, intellectual or moral, have corresponding virtues of the supernatural order, infused by God in order that man may be pelfected in every act of his moral life?

Yes; for only these infused virtues are proportionate to those acts in the supernatural moral life of man which the supernatural end demands; an end held out for man's attainment by the theological virtues (LXIII. 3, 4).

Next - The Catechism of the Summa - The Second Part: VIII. OF THE VIRTUES WHICH CAN AND OUGHT TO BE THE PRINCIPLE OF MAN'S GOOD ACTS (B)

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